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Nevertheless, the manner in which clinicians and educators view the disorder remains quite disparate; in North America, Canada, and Australia, such children have ADHD, a developmental disorder, whereas in Europe they are viewed as having conduct problem or disorder, a behavioral disturbance believed to arise largely out of family dysfunction and social disadvantage. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 27, 798-801. By the 1970s, research emphasized the problems with sustained attention and impulse control in addition to hyperactivity (Douglas, 1972). Yet, in hindsight, this bald assertion led to valuable research on the differences between these two supposed forms of ADD that otherwise would never have taken place. That research may have been fortuitous, as it may be leading to the conclusion that a subset of those having ADD without hyperactivity may actually be exhibiting a separate, distinct, and qualitatively unique disorder rather than a subtype of ADHD; one tentatively named sluggish cognitive tempo (Barkley, 2012a, 2012b; Milich, Ballantine & Lynam, 2001).
The author’s theoretical model of executive functioning (Barkley, 2012) and its application to ADHD also will be presented, providing a more parsimonious accounting of the many cognitive and social deficits in the disorder which points to numerous promising directions for future research while rendering a deeper appreciation for the developmental significance and seriousness of ADHD. But, the first paper in the medical literature on disorders of attention such as ADHD is a short chapter on this topic in a medical textbook (initially published anonymously) by Melchior Adam Weikard in 1775 (Barkley & Peters, 2012). This theory shows that ADHD involves more than just attention deficits – it also comprises central problems with inhibition, self-regulation, and the cross-temporal organization of social behavior, the phenotypic effects of which radiate outward to impact various zones of social, educational, and occupational functioning. Weikard was a prominent German physician who described symptoms of distractibility, poor persistence, impulsive actions, and inattention more generally quite similar to the symptoms used today to describe the inattention associated with ADHD. (This course was initially adapted with permission from the chapter by R. This text was followed by that of the Scottish physician Alexander Crichton in 1798, who provided even more detailed descriptions of this sort of inattention as well as identifying a second disorder of attention thought to involve low power to focus attention (Palmer & Finger, 2001). Significant, historically, was the distinction in DSM-III between two types of ADD: those with hyperactivity and those without it. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 1065-1079. Little research existed at the time on the latter subtype that would have supported such a distinction being made in an official and increasingly prestigious diagnostic taxonomy.
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The recognition that the disorder was not caused by brain damage seemed to follow a similar argument made somewhat earlier by the prominent child psychiatrist Stella Chess (1960).